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An introduction to the medieval church history

Sources and Literature August Potthast: Bibliotheca Historica Medii Aoevi. The medieval literature embraces four distinct branches. The Romano-Germanic or Western Christian; 2. The Graeco-Byzantine or Eastern Christian; 3. The Talmudic and Rabbinical; 4. The Arabic and Mohammedan. We notice here only the first and second; the other two will be mentioned in subdivisions as far as they are connected with church history.

  • Florence and Venice 1759-1798, 31 vols;
  • The medieval Church was a schoolmaster to lead men to Christ.

The Christian literature consists partly of documentary sources, partly of historical works. We confine ourselves here to the most important works of a more general character. Books referring to particular countries and sections of church history will be noticed in the progress of the narrative. Documentary Sources They are mostly in Latin — the official language of the Western Church, — and in Greek, — the official language of the Eastern Church.

The documents of the papal court embrace a Regesta registrathe transactions of the various branches of the papal government from a.

  1. But the gradual dissolution of mediaevalism was only the preparation for a new life, a destruction looking to a reconstruction. Continued by Raynaldi from 1198 to 1565 , Laderchi from 1566-1571 , and A.
  2. The course of the Keltic nations had been anticipated by the Galatians, who first embraced with great readiness and heartiness the independent gospel of St.
  3. All men believed in the supernatural and miraculous as readily as children do now.
  4. In modern times their descendants peacefully settled the British Provinces and the greater part of North America.
  5. But he was easily impressed by the spoken law, the living word, and found a kind of charm in bending his will absolutely before another will.

They are of equal authority, but the bulls differ from the briefs by their more solemn form. The bulls are written on parchment, and sealed with a seal of lead or gold, which is stamped on one side with the effigies of Peter and Paul, and on the other with the name of the reigning pope, and attached to the instrument by a string; while the briefs are written on paper, sealed with red wax, and impressed with the seal of the fisherman or Peter in a boat.

The Gothic cathedrals are as striking embodiments of medieval Christianity as the Egyptian pyramids are of the civilization of the Pharaohs. Contains a complete history of the East-Roman Empire from the sixth century to its fall. The chief writers are Zonaras, from the Creation to a. Bibliotheca Graeca sive Notitia Scriptorum veterum Graecorum, 4th ed. Hamburg, 1790-1811, 12 vols. A supplement by S. Bibliographisches Lexicon der gesammten Literatur der Griechen.

Lugduni, an introduction to the medieval church history, 27 vols. Thesaurus Anecdotorum Novus, seu Collectio Monumentorum, etc. Paris, 1717, 5 vols. Veterum Scriptorum et Monumentorum Collectio ampliss. The Latin series, from tom. Reprints of older editions, and most valuable for completeness and convenience, though lacking in critical accuracy.

  • The Greek Church was much weakened by the inroads of Mohammedanism, and lost the possession of the territories of primitive Christianity, but secured a new and vast missionary field in Russia;
  • This monumental work of John Bolland a learned Jesuit, 1596-1665 , Godefr.

A continuation of Migne in the same style. The first 4 vols. Mansi archbishop of Lucca, d. Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima Collectio. Florence and Venice 1759-1798, 31 vols.

The best collection down to 1509. The bulls of Gregory XVI. Documentary Histories Acta Sanctorum Bollandistarum. Bruxellis et Tongerloae, 1643-1794; Brux. Paris, 1863-75, in 61 vols. This monumental work of John Bolland a learned Jesuit, 1596-1665Godefr. They are not critical histories, but compilations of an immense material of facts and fiction, which illustrate the life and manners of the ancient and medieval church.

Annales ecclesiastici a Christo nato ad annum 1198. Continued by Raynaldi from 1198 to 1565Laderchi from 1566-1571and A.

Vol. 4, Chapter I. General Introduction to Medieval Church History

Likewise a work of herculean industry, but to be used with critical caution, as it contains many spurious documents, legends and fictions, and is written in the interest and defence of the papacy. Modern Histories of the Middle Ages J. Annales du moyen age. Dijon, 1825, 8 vols. Halle, 1830, 2 vols. Histoire literaire du moyen age. London, 1841, 2 vols. View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages.

London, 1818, 3d ed. Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. York, 1880, in 4 vols. A History of the Christian Church. York, 1854, 8 vols.

Richard Chenevix Trench Archbishop of Dublin: Lectures on Medieval Church History. Du Cange Charles du Fresne, d. Glossarium ad Scriptores mediae et infimae Latinitatis, Paris, 1678; new ed. Glossarium ad Scriptores medicae et infimae Graecitatis, Par.

These two works are the philological keys to the knowledge of medieval church history. With additions and corrections by E. Limits and General Character Map, Europe 800 a. In the Time of Charles the Great. The Middle Age, as the term implies, is the period which intervenes between ancient and modern times, and connects them, by continuing the one, and preparing for the other. It forms the transition from the Graeco-Roman civilization to the Romano-Germanic civilization, which gradually arose out of the intervening chaos of barbarism.

The connecting link is Christianity, which saved the best elements of the old, and directed and moulded the new order of things. Politically, the middle age dates from the great migration of nations and the downfall of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century; but for ecclesiastical history it begins with Gregory the Great, an introduction to the medieval church history last of the fathers and the first of the popes, at the close of the sixth century.

Its termination, both for secular and ecclesiastical history, is the Reformation of the sixteenth century 1517which introduces the modern age of the Christian era.

Some an introduction to the medieval church history modern history from the invention of the art of printing, or from the discovery of America, which preceded the Reformation; but these events were only preparatory to a great reform movement and extension of the Christian world.

The theatre of medieval Christianity is mainly Europe. In Western Asia and North Africa, the Cross was supplanted by the Crescent; and America, which opened a new field for the ever-expanding energies of history, was not discovered until the close of the fifteenth century. Europe was peopled by a warlike emigration of heathen barbarians from Asia as America is peopled by a peaceful emigration from civilized and Christian Europe. The great migration of nations marks a turning point in the history of religion and civilization.

It was destructive in its first effects, and appeared like the doom of the judgment-day; but it proved the harbinger of a new creation, the chaos preceding the cosmos. The change was brought about gradually. The forces of the old Greek and Roman world continued to work for centuries alongside of the new elements. The barbarian irruption came not like a single torrent which passes by, but as the tide which advances and retires, returns and at last becomes master of the flooded soil.

The savages of the north swept down the valley of the Danube to the borders of the Greek Empire, and southward over the Rhine and the Vosges into Gaul, across the Alps into Italy, and across the Pyrenees into Spain.

They were not a single people, but many independent tribes; not an organized army of a conqueror, but irregular hordes of wild warriors ruled by intrepid kings; not directed by the ambition of one controlling genius, like Alexander or Caesar, but prompted by the irresistible impulse of an historical instinct, and unconsciously bearing in their rear the future destinies of Europe and America.

They brought with them fire and sword, destruction and desolation, but also life and vigor, respect for woman, sense of honor, love of liberty — noble instincts, which, being purified and developed by Christianity, became the governing principles of a higher civilization than that of Greece and Rome.

I reply that all the East thought the same of the great Alexander; the Romans also seemed no better than the enemies of all society to the nations afar off, whose repose they troubled. But the Greeks, you say, established empires; the Germans overthrow them.

Well, the Macedonians began by subduing the nations which afterwards they civilized. The Germans are now upsetting all this world; but if, which Heaven avert, they finish by continuing to be its masters, peradventure some day posterity will salute with the title of great princes those in whom we at this day can see nothing but enemies.

The medieval Church

The Nations of Medieval Christianity. They are the natural descendants and heirs of the old Roman nationality and Latin Christianity, yet mixed with the new Keltic and Germanic forces. Their languages are all derived from the Latin; they inherited Roman laws and customs, and adhered to the Roman See as the centre of their ecclesiastical organization; they carried Christianity to the advancing barbarians, and by their superior civilization gave laws to the conquerors.

The Keltic race, embracing the Gauls, old Britons, the Picts and Scots, the Welsh and Irish with their numerous emigrants in all the large cities of Great Britain and the United States, appear in history several hundred years before Christ, as the first light wave of the vast Aryan migration from the mysterious bowels of Asia, which swept to the borders of the extreme West.

The Gauls were conquered by Caesar, but afterwards commingled with the Teutonic Francs, who founded the French monarchy. The Scotch in the highlands Gaels remained Keltic, while in the lowlands they mixed with Saxons and Normans. The mental characteristics of the Kelts remain unchanged for two thousand years: The apostle Paul complains of the same weakness.

Thierry, their historian, well describes them thus: Keltic Christianity was at first independent of Rome, and even antagonistic to it in certain subordinate rites; but after the Saxon and Norman conquests, it was brought into conformity, and since the Reformation, the Irish have been more attached to the Roman Church than even the Latin races. The French formerly inclined likewise to a liberal Catholicism called Gallicanism ; but they sacrificed the Gallican liberties to the Ultramontanism of the Vatican Council.

The Welsh and Scotch, on the contrary, with the exception of a portion of the Highlanders in the North of Scotland, embraced the Protestant Reformation in its Calvinistic rigor, and are among its sternest and most vigorous advocates.

The course of the Keltic nations had been anticipated by the Galatians, who first embraced with great readiness and heartiness the independent gospel of St. Paul, but were soon turned away to a Judaizing legalism by false teachers, and then brought back again by Paul to the right path.