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Aida dagmar model for marketing communication in hospitality industry

Input factors in communication persuasion model are consisted of five factors: Source factors affect persuasive communication. In message factors, various ways of delivering message such as style, humour, speed, and so on, make consumers associate a good attitude with the message.

Also, messages are well communicated by both verbal and nonverbal channels. To change target behaviour, messages should be planned and communicated for long term because immediate effects are less effective than long term effect in terms of remembering and persuasion.

Persuasion process step is more subdivided than the information processing model. This model is very useful to measure effectiveness of advertising campaign by using input and output factors.

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Additionally, construction and evaluation, after the reviewing advertising campaign, can reinforce the communication strategy. Exposure to the communication 2.

  • Public relation is regarded as being more credible then advertising as public do not realize that the institution paid directly or indirectly for them;
  • Affordability Method This method involves setting of the promotion budget at the level the company can afford.

Attending to it 3. Liking, becoming interested in it 4. Comprehending it learning what 5. Skill acquisition learning how 6. Yielding to it attitude change 7.

Information search and retrieval 9. Deciding on basis of retrieval 10. Behaving in accord with decision 11. Reinforcement of desired acts 12. This was used at first very much as the psychologist Pavlov had postulated, fully into psychology and learning concepts.

Different Models Facilitating Communication and Sales Objective Setting

But over the years it evolved into being used by advertising researchers with later models taking into consideration the environment in which the decision to buy is made. The theory of cognitive dissonance states that contradicting cognitions serve as a driving force that compels the mind to acquire or invent new thoughts or beliefs, or to modify existing beliefs so as to reduce the amount of dissonance conflict between cognitions.

Experiments have attempted to quantify this hypothetical drive. Some of these examined how beliefs often change to match behavior when beliefs and behavior are in conflict. This leads some people who feel dissonance to seek information that will reduce dissonance and avoid information that will increase dissonance. People who are involuntarily exposed to information that increases dissonance are likely to discount that information, either by ignoring it, misinterpreting it, or denying it.

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This theory illustrates a two-way relationship, with behaviour influencing attitudes as well as attitudes influencing behaviour. The major implication of this is that advertising for existing brands in the repeat purchase market should be aimed at existing users to reassure them in the continuation of the buying habit at the expense of the competition. The Unique Selling Proposition: It states that such campaigns made unique propositions to the customer and that this convinced them to switch brand.

In particular they identified two desirable attributes: The pattern they found among campaigns that produced a aida dagmar model for marketing communication in hospitality industry usage pull was the basis for the theory of the USP.

According to him, the consumer remembers one key element of an advertisement — a strong claim or concept. This proposition must be one that the competition does not offer, thus will be the differentiating factor, which will be recalled by the consumer and will result in purchase at the appropriate time. The proposition that each advertisement must make to the consumers should not be just words, product puffery or show-window advertising.

Each advertisement must say to each reader: It must be unique; either a uniqueness of the brand or a claim not otherwise made in that particular field of advertising. The proposition must be so strong that it can move the mass millions; i. Reeves believed that a campaign should last for the life of the product; that advertisers should not change the campaign just to make the advertising different.

He believed that the product should be different from the competitors, not the advertising. But Reeves emphasised that the advertisers must make the product interesting not make the advertising different. This was led by advertising practitioner David Ogilvy who focused on non-verbal methods of communication to invest a brand with agreeable connotations, aside from its actual properties in use, such as prestige and quality.

He took the concept of brand image from the academic world and injected it into the lexicon of advertising. In 1955 he told American Association of Advertising Agencies: He changed the economics of advertising in being the first to work for fees instead of media commissions many of his competitors regarded him as a traitor.

He was the first consumerist, and preached: Never write an advertisement you would not want your own family to read. You would not tell lies to your wife. Palda 1966 posed his concern over the lack of experimental evidence to support the hierarchy of effects. This stirred a new developmental phase in the theory.

Aida dagmar model for marketing communication in hospitality industry

The three most popular theories are described below in an attempt to provide a sample of the diverse nature of current theories. The Three orders Model: In 1973, Michael L. Ray attempted to synthesise models developed by competing researchers. The Dissonance Hierarchy, which examined advertising as a method to counteract cognitive dissonance conation-affect-cognition ; and iii. The Low Involvement Hierarchy, which focused on the significant effect of repetition in advertising cognition-conative-affect.

While prior theorists subscribed to one hierarchical model and attempted to discredit the others. Ray created a model in which all three hierarchies co-existed. He suggested that different circumstances dictated which of the three hierarchies was dominant in any given situation.

The Learning Hierarchy pertained to high involvement products, offered alongside numerous alternative products. The Dissonance — Attribution Hierarchy was the reverse of the learning model. Cognition occurs last, and only selectively in order to legitimise the behaviour. Ray describes this hierarchy as relevant to high involvement purchases where nearly indistinguishable alternative products are present.

Cognition takes place first, chiefly by means of frequent repetition of a message, followed by behaviour, and finally the formulation of an attitude about the product. Products or product categories are plotted in one of the four quadrants on the grid. With the need for a scientifically-derived model of advertising for support in strategy planning, response measurement and sales promotion, Richard Vaughn presented the FCB Model.

By positioning products on the FCB Grid according to two dimensions, advertisers can consider the relative brand leverage compared to their competitors. Therefore, the FCB Grid is a useful advertising planning model in terms of developing basic advertising strategy.

This classification suggests that purchase decisions are different when thinking is mostly involved and others are dominantly involved with feeling. In addition, different situations also exist, resulting in decision-making processes which require either more or less involvement.

The quadrants summarize four substantially major goals for advertising strategy: The insight from Vaughn led to the conceptualization of using a continuum of high involvement to low involvement, as well as a continuum of thinking and feeling, in order to form a space where we can position the products relative to each other. However, every theory needs scientific research which can validate its aida dagmar model for marketing communication in hospitality industry.

The primary grid validation study was conducted in the United States among 1,800 consumers across some 250 product categories. Also, international study about the Grid has been conducted by asking over 20,000 consumer interviews in 23 countries.

  • Basically the effectiveness testing of the model is simple and easy to access as it makes an assumption that the target audience goes on decreasing on the percentage basis as the company develops campaign relating to inducing a purchase decision;
  • The advertising develops a mental disposition tendency among consumers to buy the product.

This study indicates that consumer mental processes are quite similar throughout different countries in spite of communication distinctions in advertising Vaughn, 1986. In spite of the successful validation of the FCB Grid by thorough research, Vaughn 1986 accentuated the importance of speculation about the involvement and think-feel dimensions. According to Vaughn, this quadrant represents a large need of consumers for information because of the significance of the product; as a result, more thinking is required to make a purchase decision.

DAGMAR marketing

Major purchases such as a car, house, appliance, insurance, furnishings, and almost any expensive new product; those which make consumers consider many factors such as function, price and availability in making purchase decision, are classified in this quadrant.

The Economic model is a theory emphasising a rational aspect of consumer who consciously considers functional cost-utility information in a purchase decision.

The purchase decision in quadrant II also has a high involvement level like quadrant 1; however, the importance of specific information is less than that of an attitude or holistic feeling toward a product.

Example products are jewelry, perfume, fashion apparel, motorcycles, and wine for a dinner party. The Psychological model is appropriate in this quadrant; that is, an unpredictable consumer who buys compulsively is influenced by unconscious thoughts and indirect emotions.

For this type of product, the creative goal is executional impact and media strategies calls for dramatic print exposure or image- focused broadcast advertising.

In this area, consumers have minimal thought about the product and they have a tendency to form buying habits for convenience. Therefore, advertising which can create and reinforce habits of consumers is needed. Product examples are paper products, household cleaners, gasoline, most food and staple packaged goods. The Responsive theory — a habitual consumer conditioned to thoughtlessly buy through rote, stimulus-response learning — is suitable for this quadrant.

As time passes by, many ordinary products will be in the mature stage of the product cycle and progressively descend into this area.

The creative element for this strategy requires advertising to stimulate a reminder for the product; therefore, consumers can continuously remember the habitual need for the product. Implications for media are small space ads, point of purchase ads and radio, all with the aim of high frequency. Products such as cigarettes, liquor, candy, movies or the decision to patronise a fast-food restaurant all appertain to this quadrant. This area is an application of the traditional Social theory: As for creative strategy, consistent product imagery is needed.

Billboards, point-of-sale, and newspapers are recommended by Vaughn. Any theory has to get purified through the pious fire of criticisms. Like all other theories, this theory has also drawn criticisms both positive as well as negative.

Berger 1986 praised the FCB Grid in his article: In fact, my impression is that the people who have used the Grid before getting data are better off. First, Rossiter, Percy, and Donovan criticised a partially mixed conceptualisation of involvement dimension.