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A study on the nature vs nurture debate

By Saul McLeodupdated 2017 The nature vs. Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception, e.

The nature-nurture debate is concerned with the relative contribution that both influences make to human behavior. Nature Nurture Debate in Psychology It has long been known that certain physical characteristics are biologically determined by genetic inheritance.

Other physical characteristics, if not determined, appear to be at least strongly influenced by the genetic make-up of our biological parents. Height, weight, hair loss in menlife expectancy and vulnerability to specific illnesses e.

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Those who adopt an extreme hereditary position are known as nativists. In general, the earlier a particular ability appears, the more likely it is to be under the influence of genetic factors.

  • There is no neat and simple way of unraveling these qualitatively different and reciprocal influences on human behavior;
  • He may have inherited a genetically-based temperamental predisposition to being aggressive;
  • In practice, hardly anyone today accepts either of the extreme positions;
  • Given this modern understanding, the question of nature versus nurture ceases even to make sense in many ways.

Characteristics and differences that are not observable at birth, but which emerge later in life, are regarded as the product of maturation. The classic example of the way this affects our physical development are the bodily changes that occur in early adolescence at puberty.

However, nativists also argue that maturation governs the emergence of attachment in infancylanguage acquisition and even cognitive development as a whole. From this point of view, psychological characteristics and behavioral differences that emerge through infancy and childhood are the results of learning. It is how you are brought up nurture that governs the psychologically significant aspects of child development and the concept of maturation applies only to the biological.

For example, when an infant forms an attachment it is responding to the love and attention it has received, language comes from imitating the speech of others, and cognitive development depends on the degree of stimulation in the environment and, more broadly, on the civilization within which the child is reared. Examples of an extreme nature positions in psychology include Bowlby's 1969 theory of attachmentwhich views the bond between mother and child as being an innate process that ensures survival.

Likewise, Chomsky 1965 proposed language is gained through the use of an innate language acquisition device. Another example of nature is Freud's theory of aggression as being an innate drive called Thanatos.

In contrast Bandura's 1977 social learning theory states that aggression is a learned from the environment through observation and imitation. This is seen in his famous Bobo doll experiment Bandura, 1961. Also, Skinner 1957 believed that language is learnt from other people via behavior shaping techniques. In practice, hardly anyone today accepts either of the extreme positions.

This question was first framed by Francis Galton in the late 19th century.

  1. Nature vs nurture in psychology. This is seen in his famous Bobo doll experiment Bandura, 1961.
  2. This was the twin study, which enabled researchers to calculate directly the degree to which a variable of interest intelligence, height, anxiety level, etc. What begins as an attempt to understand the causes of behavioral differences often develops into a politically motivated dispute about distributive justice and power in society.
  3. Likewise, Chomsky 1965 proposed language is gained through the use of an innate language acquisition device. Characteristics and differences that are not observable at birth, but which emerge later in life, are regarded as the product of maturation.
  4. This question was first framed by Francis Galton in the late 19th century.

This view has cropped up time and again in the history of psychology and has stimulated much of the research into intelligence testing particularly on separated twins and adopted children. A modern proponent is the American psychologist Arthur Jenson.

  • It is impossible to separate the two influences as well as illogical as nature and nurture do not operate in a separate way but interact in a complex manner;
  • It is equally relevant to the psychology of sex and gender, where the question of how much of the alleged differences in male and female behavior is due to biology and how much to culture is just as controversial;
  • Genes have an influence on the environments we experience;
  • This question was first framed by Francis Galton in the late 19th century.

Finding that the average I. It was more to do with the social and political implications that are often drawn from research that claims to demonstrate natural inequalities between social groups. Today in Britain many believe that the immigration policies are designed to discriminate against Black and Asian ethnic groups. However the most chilling of all implications drawn from this view of the natural superiority of one race over another took place in the concentration camps of Nazi Germany.

For many environmentalists there is a barely disguised right-wing agenda behind the work of the behavioral geneticists. In their view, part of the difference in the I. More fundamentally, they believe that differences in intellectual ability are a product of social inequalities in access to material resources and opportunities.

  1. For many environmentalists there is a barely disguised right-wing agenda behind the work of the behavioral geneticists. Aspects of the theory of syntax.
  2. Those who adopt an extreme hereditary position are known as nativists.
  3. This view has cropped up time and again in the history of psychology and has stimulated much of the research into intelligence testing particularly on separated twins and adopted children. This is seen in his famous Bobo doll experiment Bandura, 1961.
  4. There is no neat and simple way of unraveling these qualitatively different and reciprocal influences on human behavior. Given this modern understanding, the question of nature versus nurture ceases even to make sense in many ways.

To put it simply children brought up in the ghetto tend to score lower on tests because they are denied the same life chances as more privileged members of society.

Now we can see why the nature-nurture debate has become such a hotly contested issue. What begins as an attempt to understand the causes of behavioral differences often develops into a politically motivated dispute about distributive justice and power in society. It is equally relevant to the psychology of sex and gender, where the question of how much of the alleged differences in male and female behavior is due to biology and how much to culture is just as controversial.

Take intelligence as an example.

Like almost all types of human behavior, it is a complex, many-sided phenomenon which reveals itself or not! The reality is that nature and culture interact in a host of qualitatively different ways.

Nature Nurture Debate in Psychology

It is widely accepted now that heredity and the environment do not act independently. Both nature and nurture are essential for any behavior, and it cannot be said that a particular behavior is genetic and another is environmental. It is impossible to separate the two influences as well as illogical as nature and nurture do not operate in a separate way but interact in a complex manner. Instead of defending extreme nativist or nurturist views, most psychological researchers are now interested in investigating how nature and nurture interact.

For example, in psychopathologythis means that both a genetic predisposition and an appropriate environmental trigger are required for a mental disorder to develop. This realization is especially important given the recent advances in genetics. The Human Genome Project, for example, has stimulated enormous interest in tracing types of behavior to particular strands of DNA located on specific chromosomes. There is no neat and simple way of unraveling these qualitatively different and reciprocal influences on human behavior.

Transmission of aggression through the imitation of aggressive models.

Have Researchers Finally Settled The Nature Vs Nurture Debate?

Aspects of the theory of syntax. Inquiries into human faculty and its development. How to reference this article: Nature vs nurture in psychology.