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A description of him looking himself in the mirror

Symbolic interaction[ edit ] In hypothesizing the framework, "the mind is mental" because "the human mind is social". From the time they are born, humans define themselves within the context of their social interactions.

Schubert references Cooley's On Self and Social Organization, "a growing solidarity between mother and child parallels the child's increasing competence in using significant symbols.

This simultaneous development is itself a necessary prerequisite for the child's ability to adopt the perspectives of other participants in social relationships and, thus, for the child's capacity to develop a social self.

Through interaction with others, we begin to develop an identity of our own as well as developing a capacity to empathize with others. As stated by Cooley, "The thing that moves us to pride or shame is not the mere mechanical reflection of ourselves, but an imputed sentiment, the imagined effect of this reflection upon another's mind" Cooley 1964.

We imagine and react to what we feel their judgment of that appearance must be. We develop our self through the judgments of others. Studies[ edit ] The term "looking-glass self" was coined by Cooley after extensive psychological testing in 1902. Another study in the Journal of Family Psychology in 1998, measured the validity of the looking glass self and symbolic interaction in the context of familial relationships. Self reflection study[ edit ] On Halloween night, 363 children trick-or-treated at 18 different homes in Seattle, Washington.

Each of a description of him looking himself in the mirror 18 homes was selected to take part in the experiment and was in turn arranged in similar ways. In a room near the entry way there was a low table and on it was a large bowl full of bite sized candy. A festive backdrop was also placed in sight of the candy bowl with a small hole for viewing; behind the backdrop was an observer who would record the results of the experiment.

  • The results of the study were split up into different categories based on the approximate age given to each child;
  • The rate of transgression rose with the age of the child; the 1—4 year olds had a rate of transgression of only 6;
  • Critical perspectives[ edit ] It has been argued that the looking glass self conceptualization of the social self is critically incomplete in that it overlooks the divergent roles of ingroups and outgroups in self-definition;
  • Those who keep in the law and word of God, are, and shall be, blessed in all their ways;
  • The families were primarily white and middle class;
  • Fewer boys transgressed with the mirror present, than without; 15.

The experiment was conducted in the same way at each of the 18 different homes, with each home conducting two different conditions of the experiment, self-awareness manipulation and individuation manipulation. All of the homes conducted both conditions; half of the homes conducting self-awareness manipulation while the other half conducted individuation manipulation. She would then instruct the children to take only one piece of candy from the bowl and excuse herself to another room.

The self-awareness manipulation condition was performed with a mirror placed at a ninety degree angle directly behind the entry-way table fifty percent of the time. The mirror was placed in such a way that the children could always see their reflection in the mirror when taking candy from the bowl; the other half of the time there was no mirror in place and the children were left anonymous.

Individuation manipulation[ edit ] There was some concern that the children involved in the study would only see their Halloween costumes and not their own self reflections, so a second condition was performed in Beaman, Diener, and Svanum's experiment.

This second condition was called individuation manipulation. The individuation manipulation condition was performed in the same way as the self-awareness manipulation. After greeting the children the woman at the door would ask each of the children their name and where he or she lived.

These questions were asked in such a way that the children would think nothing of it because many other homes asked the children their names on Halloween night; however, no effort was made to identify the children involved. Just as in the first condition, a mirror was used half of the time and was removed for the other half of the experiment.

Results[ edit ] The children involved in the experiment were split into several different categories based on the results of the experiment. The criteria consisted of age, group size, and gender.

Out of the 363 children involved in the study, 70 children transgressed when instructed not to. Children who arrived in groups were more likely to transgress than those children who arrived alone; 20.

Children arriving with adults were not included in the study. Gender[ edit ] The genders of those who participated in the study were recorded by the unobtrusive observer from behind the festive backdrop. Of those children whose genders could be determined there were 190 boys and 136 girls.

  • Simeon, not the word, or the searching into it, and the explanation of it, is the root, or principal thing, , "but the work" p;
  • In it, too, we see mirrored God's glory, as well as our natural vileness;
  • The results of the study were split up into different categories based on the approximate age given to each child.

While Cooley suggests that girls have a far higher impressionable social sensibility it was not the case in this study, as boys transgressed more often than girls. Fewer boys transgressed with the mirror present, than without; 15. This trend was the same for girls; 8. The average age of the children was eight years old.

The results of the study were split up into different categories based on the approximate age given to each child. The age groups were as follows: The rate of transgression rose with the age of the child; the 1—4 year olds had a rate of transgression of only 6.

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The two older age groups transgressed far more often than the younger groups; children aged 9—12 transgressed 23. Family study[ edit ] The research article was included in the Journal of Family Psychology in 1998.

The researchers, Cook and Douglas, measured the validity of the looking glass self and symbolic interaction in the context of familial relationships.

The study analyzed the accuracy of a college student's and an adolescent's perceptions of how they are perceived by their parents.

The 51 participants of this study included four family members mother, father, college student and adolescent who returned surveys. The families were primarily white and middle class.

  • Children who arrived in groups were more likely to transgress than those children who arrived alone; 20;
  • Through interaction with others, we begin to develop an identity of our own as well as developing a capacity to empathize with others;
  • The hypothesis was tested at the individual and relationship levels of analysis Findings[ edit ] The study determined that the hypothesis is strongly supported at the individual level for cooperation for both college students and adolescents, but is only partially supported for assertiveness for college students;
  • As stated by Cooley, "The thing that moves us to pride or shame is not the mere mechanical reflection of ourselves, but an imputed sentiment, the imagined effect of this reflection upon another's mind" Cooley 1964;
  • Self reflection study[ edit ] On Halloween night, 363 children trick-or-treated at 18 different homes in Seattle, Washington;
  • If "metaperceptions" cause self-perceptions they will necessarily be coordinated.

The college student and adolescent were paid ten dollars each, if each family member completed the survey. Three areas were investigated: In reference to the three areas respondents were asked the following: The study identified the looking glass self as a "metaperception" because it involves "perception of perceptions. If "metaperceptions" cause self-perceptions they will necessarily be coordinated. The hypothesis was tested at the individual and relationship levels of analysis Findings[ edit ] The study determined that the hypothesis is strongly supported at the individual level for cooperation for both college students and adolescents, but is only partially supported for assertiveness for college students.

Also for college students, at the relationship level with their mothers the study supported assertiveness. There was an irregular finding regarding firmness in the mother-adolescent relationship that indicated that the firmer adolescents were perceived by their mothers, the less firm they rated themselves in the relationship. While there was not strong support of the hypothesis on the relationship level, on the individual level the findings suggest that how college students and adolescents think about themselves is directly correlated to how they think they are perceived by their parents.

Looking-glass self

Critical perspectives[ edit ] It has been argued that the looking glass self conceptualization of the social self is critically incomplete in that it overlooks the divergent roles of ingroups and outgroups in self-definition.

This alternative perspective is derived from the self-categorization theory analysis of social influence. Therefore, the concept of self-identity may be considered an example of a social construction.