Homeworks academic writing service

Napoleon bonaparte was the cure of the french revolution

But Paoli had no sympathy for the young man, whose father had deserted his cause and whom he considered to be a foreigner. Disappointed, Napoleon returned napoleon bonaparte was the cure of the french revolution France, and in April 1791 he was appointed first lieutenant to the 4th regiment of artillery, garrisoned at Napoleon bonaparte was the cure of the french revolution.

He at once joined the Jacobin Cluba debating society initially favouring a constitutional monarchy, and soon became its president, making speeches against nobles, monks, and bishops.

In September 1791 he got leave to go back to Corsica again for three months. Elected lieutenant colonel in the national guard, he soon fell out with Paoli, its commander in chief. When he failed to return to France, he was listed as a deserter in January 1792. But in April France declared war against Austria, and his offense was forgiven. Apparently through patronage, Napoleon was promoted to the rank of captain but did not rejoin his regiment. Instead he returned to Corsica in October 1792, where Paoli was exercising dictatorial powers and preparing to separate Corsica from France.

Napoleon Bonaparte, as he may henceforth be called though the family did not drop the spelling Buonaparte until after 1796rejoined his regiment at Nice in June 1793. In his Le Souper de Beaucaire Supper at Beaucairewritten at this time, he argued vigorously for united action by all republicans rallied round the Jacobins, who were becoming progressively more radical, and the National Conventionthe Revolutionary assembly that in the preceding fall had abolished the monarchy.

Bonaparte was promoted to major in September and adjutant general in October. He received a bayonet wound on December 16, but on the next day the British troops, harassed by his artillery, evacuated Toulon. On December 22 Bonaparte, age 24, was promoted to brigadier general in recognition of his decisive part in the capture of the town.

He was freed in September but was not restored to his command. The post seemed to hold no future for him, and he went to Paris to justify himself. Despite his efforts in Paris, Napoleon was unable to obtain a satisfactory command, because he was feared for his intense ambition and for his relations with the Montagnardsthe more radical members of the National Convention.

He then considered offering his services to the sultan of Turkey. The Directory Bonaparte was still in Paris in October 1795 when the National Convention, on the eve of its dispersal, submitted the new constitution of the year III of the First Republic to a referendum, together with decrees according to which two-thirds of the members of the National Convention were to be reelected to the new legislative assemblies.

The royalists, hoping that they would soon be able to restore the monarchy, instigated a revolt in Paris to prevent these measures from being put into effect. Bonaparte became commander of the Army of the Interior and, consequently, was henceforth aware of every political development in France.

He became the respected adviser on military matters to the new government, the Directory. Having proved his loyalty to the Directory, he was appointed commander in chief of the Army of Italy in March 1796. He had been trying to obtain that post for several weeks so that he could personally conduct part of the plan of campaign adopted by the Directory on his advice. Arriving at his headquarters in Nice, Bonaparte found that his army, which on paper consisted of 43,000 men, numbered scarcely 30,000 ill-fed, ill-paid, and ill-equipped men.

On March 28, 1796, he made his first proclamation to his troops: Soldiers, you are naked, badly fed.

Napoleon I

Soldiers of Italy, will you be wanting in courage and steadfastness? He took the offensive on April 12 and successively defeated and separated the Austrian and the Sardinian armies and then marched on Turin.

Bonaparte continued the war against the Austrians and occupied Milan but was held up at Mantua. While his army was besieging this great fortress, he signed armistices with the duke of Parma, with the duke of Modena, and finally with Pope Pius VI. At the same time, he took an interest in the political organization of Italy.

Thereafter, Bonaparte, without discarding the Italian patriots altogether, restricted their freedom of action. Then he sent an expedition to recover Corsica, which the British had evacuated.

After the last Austrian defeat, at Rivoli in January 1797, Napoleon bonaparte was the cure of the french revolution capitulated. Next he marched on Vienna.

He was about 60 miles 100 km from that capital when the Austrians sued for an armistice. By the preliminaries of peace, Austria ceded the southern Netherlands to France and recognized the Lombard republic but received in exchange some territory belonging to the old Republic of Venice, which was partitioned between Austria, France, and Lombardy.

Bonaparte then consolidated and reorganized the northern Italian republics and encouraged Jacobin—radical republican—propaganda in Venetia. Meanwhile, Bonaparte grew uneasy at the successes of the royalists in the French elections in the spring of 1797 and advised the Directory to oppose them, if necessary, by force. The Directory was displeased, however, because the treaty ceded Venice to the Austrians and did not secure the left bank of the Rhine for France. Only the war at sea, against the British, continued.

The directors, who wanted to launch an invasion of the British Islesappointed Bonaparte to command the army assembled for this purpose along the English Channel. After a rapid inspection in February 1798, he announced that the operation could not be undertaken until France had command of the sea. This proposal, seconded by Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, the foreign minister, was accepted by the directors, who were glad to get rid of their ambitious young general. The expedition, thanks to some fortunate coincidences, was at first a great success: Maltathe great fortress napoleon bonaparte was the cure of the french revolution the Hospitallerswas occupied on June 10, 1798, Alexandria taken by storm on July 1, and all of the delta of the Nile rapidly overrun.

He proceeded to introduce Western political institutions, administration, and technical skills in Egypt; but Turkey, nominally suzerain over Egypt, declared war on France in September. To prevent a Turkish invasion of Egypt and also perhaps to attempt a return to France by way of Anatolia, Bonaparte marched into Syria in February 1799.

His progress northward was halted at Acrewhere the British withstood a siege, and in May Bonaparte began a disastrous retreat to Egypt. The French armies in Italy were defeated in the spring of 1799 and had to abandon the greater part of the peninsula.

These defeats led to disturbances in France itself. Bonaparte did not take long to make up his mind. He would leave his army and return to France—in order to save the republic, of course, but also to take advantage of the new circumstances and to seize power.

The Directory had, in fact, ordered his return, but he had not received the order, so that it was actually in disregard of his instructions that he left Egypt with a few companions on August 22, 1799. Their two frigates surprisingly escaped interception by the British, and Bonaparte arrived in Paris on October 14. By this time French victories in Switzerland and Holland had averted the danger of invasion, and the counterrevolutionary risings within France had more or less failed.

But it was Bonaparte who was henceforth the master of France. Not much was known about his personality, but people had confidence in a man who had always been victorious the Nile and Acre were forgotten and who had managed to negotiate the brilliant Treaty of Campo Formio. He was indeed exceptionally intelligent, prompt to make decisions, and indefatigably hardworking but also insatiably ambitious.

He seemed to be the man of the Revolution because it was due to the Revolution that he had climbed at so early an age to the highest place in the state. He was not to forget it; but, more than a man of the Revolution, he was a man of the 18th century, the most enlightened of the enlightened despotsa true son of Voltaire.

He did not believe in the sovereignty of the people, in the popular will, or in parliamentary debate. He believed that an enlightened and firm will could do anything if it had the support of bayonets; he despised and feared the masses; and, as for public opinionhe considered that he could mold and direct it as he pleased.

It gave immense powers to the first consul, leaving only a nominal role to his two colleagues. The first consul—namely, Bonaparte—was to appoint ministers, generals, civil servants, magistrates, and the members of the Council of State and even was to have an overwhelming influence in the choice of members for the three legislative assemblies, though their members were theoretically to be chosen by universal suffrage.

Submitted to a plebiscitethe constitution won by an overwhelming majority in February 1800. At the head of the government was the Council of Statecreated by the first consul and often effectively presided over by him; it was to play an important part both as the source of the new legislation and as an administrative tribunal. The judicial system was profoundly changed: The police organization was greatly strengthened.

The financial administration was considerably improved: Education was transformed into a major public service; secondary education was given a semimilitary organization, and the university faculties were reestablished. Primary education, however, was still neglected. Personally, he was indifferent to religion: Yet he considered that religious peace had to be restored to France. As early as 1796, when he was concluding the armistice in Italy with Pope Pius VIhe had tried to persuade the pope to retract his briefs against the French priests who had accepted the Civil Constitution of the Clergywhich in practice nationalized the church.

Pius VIIwho succeeded Pius VI in March 1800, was more accommodating than his predecessor, and, 10 months after negotiations were opened with him, the Concordat of 1801 was signed reconciling the church and the Revolution.

The pope recognized the French republic and called for the resignation of all former bishops; new prelates were to be designated by the first consul and instituted by the pope; and the sale of the property of the clergy was officially recognized by Rome. The concordat, in fact, admitted freedom of worship and the lay character of the state. The codification of the civil lawfirst undertaken in 1790, was at last completed under the Consulate. The code, promulgated on March 21, 1804, and later known as the Napoleonic Codegave permanent form to the great gains of the Revolution: It maintained divorce but granted only limited legal rights to women.

The army received the most careful attention. The first consul retained in outline the system instituted by the Revolution: Nevertheless, the creation of the Academy of Saint-Cyr to produce infantry officers made it easier for the sons of bourgeois families to pursue a military career.

Yet Bonaparte was not concerned about introducing new technical inventions into his army. Military campaigns and uneasy peace The first consul spent the winter and spring of 1799—1800 reorganizing the army and preparing for an attack on Austria alone, Russia having withdrawn from the anti-French coalition.

French Revolution and the role of Napoleon Bonaparte

With his usual quick assessment of the situation, he saw the strategic importance of the Swiss Confederation, from which he would be free to outflank the Austrian armies either in Germany or in Italy as he might see fit.

His past successes made him choose Italy. Taking his army across the Great St. Bernard Pass before the snow melted, he appeared unexpectedly behind the Austrian army besieging Genoa. Great Britain alone remained at war with France, but it soon tired of the struggle. Preliminaries of peace, concluded in London in October 1801, put an end to hostilities, and peace was signed at Amiens on March 27, 1802.

The Jacobin years

General peace was reestablished in Europe. In May 1802 it was decided that the French people should vote in referendum on the following question: The British even hoped to take back some of the concessions they had been forced to make. For Bonaparte, on the other hand, the Treaty of Amiens marked the starting point for a new French ascendancy. He was, first of all, intent on reserving half of Europe as a market for France without lowering customs duties—to the indignation of British merchants.

Great Britain was alarmed by this expansion of France in peacetime and found it scarcely tolerable that one state should command the coastline of the Continent from Genoa to Antwerp.