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A discussion on whether knowledge is only a systematic organization of facts

This research explores the extent to which management information systems implemented to make successful decisions at two selected financial organizations.

The research examined whether the selected financial institutions of Bahrain vary as to the use of Management Information Systems leadership of decision making for strategic and tactical planning purposes. The research adapted the quantitative research design to examine two research hypotheses.

A total of 190 forms were equally distributed to those who are working at different management levels at the selected organizations. The results of the research showed that MIS was primarily used to enhance strategic planning in both financial institutions.

The regression analysis revealed that Tactical planning is found to have no effect on Decision Making, while Strategic planning has a clear effect on the Decision Making Effectiveness in both organizations.

Therefore, organizations are attempting to advance their agility level by improving the decision making process to be more efficient and highly effective to meet the successive fluctuations of the market. In an effort to achieve this, many modern organizations, either mid or large sized, have concerned with a cycle of progressive investments in and adopted new management information systems components.

During last decade, a high percentage of financial organizations frequently used Management Information Systems to facilitate the provision of services; and that the speed of the adoption is expected to grow further as the technology expands.

In a Bank's information system, there is always a potential crisis which makes the bank endure an insufficiency; thus, an advanced information system supported by a superior mechanism control is required to make certain that an information system has achieved the required processes.

If the relevant information required in a decision-making process or an organization planning is not available at the appropriate time, then there is a good change to be a poor organization planning, inappropriate decision-making, poor priority of needs, and defective programming or scheduling of activities Adebayo, 2007.

Information is essential for the endurance of a financial organization in the global and competitive market. The nature of globalization and competitiveness in the market stress on the importance of developing an organization capability through better enhancing MIS.

Accordingly, the stored information must then be recalled and distributed for the use of an organization leadership and top management as well as mid-level managers to take effective long term strategic and short term Tactical decision-making.

MIS is deemed to be a system which provides organizations top management and, even lower level management, with appropriate information based on data from both internal and external sources, to allow them to make effective and timely decisions that best achieve their organization goals and satisfy stakeholder requirements Argyris, 1971, p.

  1. Thus, we may cut our advertising budgets, see the benefits in terms of cost savings, and in turn further trim spending in this area. Each discipline provides a vital dimension.
  2. MIS Quarterly, 25 1 , iii-vii.
  3. Cultural and social issues for knowledge sharing, Journal of Knowledge Management.
  4. The questions related to what extent the managing of these information systems assists different decisions at different management levels and the type of responsibility of the financial institution's senior and tactical management in enhancing the management information has been raised with low empirically investigation and examination.
  5. Knowledge is considered as familiarity with some issue, which includes facts. Humans follow a chicken or the egg format; there is this ever-present urge to decide if we form ourselves or if society forms us.

The conception of information catches the attention of different professionals from different fields such as computer science, economics, business and management, political science, statistics, communication and information studies Newman 2001.

However, the question is "what type of information"? How Information management can play an essential role in the decision making process? This paper focuses on how information management is needed to generate proper planning and then decisions at both strategic and tactical levels in the two selected financial organizations.

The process of dealing with the financial institutions was tainted by a lot of sensitivity, because of the refusal of those institutions to reveal their decision-making mechanism due to their Disclosure Rules. So we decided to call the first selected institutions case one and case two referring a discussion on whether knowledge is only a systematic organization of facts the second selected organizations.

A small amount of research has deliberated that the limitations and deficiencies in the process of management information system performance are the main reason for diminishing the efficiency of decision-making process in the organization Fabunmi, 2003; Knight Moore, 2005.

The questions related to what extent the managing of these information systems assists different decisions at different management levels and the type of responsibility of the financial institution's senior and tactical management in enhancing the management information has been raised with low empirically investigation and examination. The study will examine whether the government financial institution Case one and the Private financial institution Case two differ as to the use of management information systems for leadership decision makes in short and long term planning.

This paper aims to evaluate the impact of current MIS models being developed at the selected organizations, and how far they practice this concept in order to enhance their tactical and strategic planning. Sections 2 and 3 discuss the literature review and research methods. In Section 4, we present results and analysis. In section 5, a discussion will be presented. Finally, conclusion and recommendations are presented in sections 6 and 7, respectively.

However, there are a few articles that cover the impact of Management Information Systems on planning strategies and decision making. While there are no universally accepted definitions of MIS and those that exist in literatures are just prejudices of the researchers Adeoti-Adekeye, 1997.

Lee, 2001 defined MIS as "a system or process that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively". Additionally, Baskerville and Myers 2002 broadly define MIS as "the development, use and application of information systems by individuals, organizations and society". In his study, Becta 2005 describes an information system as "a system consisting of the network of all communication channels used within an organization". In their study, Laudon and Laudon 2003 have defined MIS as "the study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management".

The abovementioned definitions showed that MIS has underlined the development, application and validation of relevant theories and models in attempts to encourage quality work in the area. Referring to the literatures, the field of Management Information Systems MIS has had a variegated development in its relatively short life span.

MIS has developed its own theme of research and studies Baskerville and Myers, 2002. Tracing previous literatures, we can report that during its first few decades, MIS concentrated on the information in the context of: Only during the last two decades, the MIS field has shifted to the primary, considered the second type of communication, namely, instruction-based.

This has become known as the domain of expert systems Sasan Rahmatian, 1999. In attempts to review published studies on MIS and articles, Alavi and Carlson 1992 have identified popular research topics, the dominant research perspective, and the relationship between MIS research and practice. In contrast, Baskerville and Myers 2002 have examined the MIS field and found a constant shift of MIS research from a technical focus to a technology-organizational and management-social focus.

Skyrius 2001 underlines the decision maker's attitudes towards different factors influencing the quality of business decisions; these factors include information sources, analytical tools, and the role of information technologies. Handzic 2001 also pays attention to the impact of information availability on people's ability to process and use information in short and long term planning and in decision making tasks.

He revealed that the better the availability of information, the better the impact on both efficiency and accuracy of business decisions. Liu and Young 2007 talk about key information models and their relationships in business decision support in three different scenarios.

In order to improve the financial organizational capability and enhance its level of competition in the market, financial organizations should understand the dimensions of the Information Management, and clearly define and develop the resources in case of human, technological, and internal operations, among others, and manage them well across the organizational boundaries.

However, establishing the link between Information System Management, planning and decision making is, at best, tricky. In an article by Shu and Strassmann 2005a survey was conducted at 12 banks in the US between 1989 and 1997.

They noticed that even though Information Technology had been one of the most essentially dynamic factors relating all efforts, it could not improve banks' earnings. However, conversely, there are many literatures approving the positive impacts of Information Technology expenses on business value. Kozak 2005 investigates the influence of the evolution in Information Technology on the profit and cost effectiveness of the banking zone during the period between 1992 and 2003.

The study indicates an optimistic relationship among the executed Information Technology, productivity and cost savings. MIS enables the exchange of experiences, which transfers the required information to the management levels to sustain competitive advantage since it affects the decision making to improve the quality of services provided.

Therefore, Barachini et al. Management Information System will give the banking management a new dimension in managing its knowledge and help in carrying out and maximizing the management's initiatives in harmonizing the appropriate strategies in the short and long planning Edmondson, 2002. In his study, Obi 2003 suggested that MIS is indispensible in the area of decision-making as it can monitor by itself the instability in a system, verify a course of action and take action to keep the system in control.

Literatures also suggested that non-programmed decisions are relevant as they provide support by supplying information to the search, the analysis, the evaluation and the choice and implementation process of decision making.

More recently, Adebayo 2007 explained that the existence of MIS is needed to improve and enhance decision making on the issues affecting human and material resources. From the literatures presented, we can easily perceive that the importance of the role of both middle and top management to maintain a consistent approach to develop, use, a discussion on whether knowledge is only a systematic organization of facts evaluate MIS systems within the institution.

To financial institutions, MIS is used at various levels by top-management, middle and even by the operational staff as a support for decision making that aims to meet strategic goals and strategic objectives.

The above literatures also explore the importance of MIS in providing decision makers with facts, which consequently support and enhance the entire decision-making process. Furthermore, at the most senior level, MIS and DSS supply the data and required information to assist the board of directors and management levels to make an accurate and on time strategic decisions.

Due to the nature of the current study and its hypothesis, the primary research purpose of the current study is, thus, explanatory. Explanatory or causal explains the complexity of the interrelated variables identified that were posited in the hypothesis and research By developing several hypotheses, the study thus adapt the quantitative research design to better test those hypotheses.

Quantitative research uses survey a discussion on whether knowledge is only a systematic organization of facts the main instrument to collect data. To what extent is MIS being utilized to support Strategic planning for decisions in Bahrain's financial organizations? To what extent is MIS being utilized to support Tactical planning for decisions in Bahrain's financial organizations? To answer these questions, the current study carries out various hypotheses that developed from previous literatures and studies Ajayi et.

Figure 1 presents the proposed model and factors affecting the process of decision making. Thus, we consider the hypothesis below: The Tactical Planning short term generated by MIS is positively affecting the decision making process. The Strategic Planning long term generated by MIS is positively affecting the decision making process. The collected data were analyzed based on correlation and regression analyses using the statistical package for social sciences SPSS. The questionnaire of this study is adapted from previous literature and studies e.

The main reason why we need to refer to literatures when developing a questionnaire is to ensure the high reliability and validity of the survey. The questionnaire we prepared for this paper was divided into 2 sections.

In the second section we were interested in gathering information about the importance of MIS and its use in Case one and Case two of financial institutions in Bahrain. This improved the questionnaire, which has been used for the research presented in this study.

Peter Senge and the learning organization

This population is deemed to be fully aware of the MIS use at the bank level. A total of 190 forms were distributed equally each bank with 95 survey forms. In a convenience sample, the managers and bank staff were randomly approached.

The distribution took place for a three-week period in early March, 2010. The survey was designed in English language. The research tested the time to fill the survey and it took approximately 5-8 minutes to be completed. The questionnaire we prepared and used had been pre-tested initially with few people 5 users working in different sectors to ensure consistency, clarity and relevance to the Bahraini case.

Minor changes related to the questions content, wording, and sequence were requested by those people, which we implemented before carrying out the final copy. Moreover, the simple Regression was implemented to test the hypothesis and the linkages between dependent and independent variables. Then, the results of correlation analysis of the three variables Strategic planning, Tactical Planning, and The Effectiveness of Decision-making are discussed.

Finally, the results of the paper are discussed in accordance with the research objectives and hypothesis of the study. Effectiveness of the bank's decision-making processes, which are the dependent variables considered to be the bank's succession in management building and facility, financial aspects and staff issues. Previous studies underpinned the importance of conducting correlation tests before the regression testing, the correlation between variables thus necessary Coakes and Steed, 2007.

The result of the correlations is presented in the following table table 1.

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The independent variables were regressed across organizational outcomes. Tables 23 and 4 summarized the results of the Linear Regression analysis. The results of regression indicated that the variance in the Effectiveness of the bank's decision making is explained by only one variable; Strategic planning, while Tactical Planning found not to affect the Effectiveness of the bank's decision making process.

The regression analysis was implemented to support the correlation test. However, the study revealed that the Tactical planning is found to have no effect on D.