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What are the central concepts of social development theories

This basically means that he is unable to survive and thrive on his own, because it is in his makeup and nature to be with others — to interact with them, connect with them, and even develop relationships. This nature of his is what leads him to seek a sense of belonging, and partake of society. This has been interpreted in several ways, and one of these interpretations equate humanity to the need to connect and interact with others in a social setting.

Several other notable thinkers came forward even long after the Greek philosopher had passed on, each with their own theories on human development and how the social factor figures into it.

Their social learning theories have become the foundation of several disciplines and fields of study in psychology. One of the most oft-discussed fields is cognitive developmentwhich refers to the development of a person from infancy and childhood, through adolescence and adulthood, in terms of his thought processes, problem-solving, and decision-making.

His thoughts and ideas on the subject were embodied in what is now known as the Social Development Theory. He may have died at the relatively young age of 37 in 1934, and it may have taken around 4 decades before his ideas were formally introduced and incorporated in psychology curricula across universities in the Western world, but they have since become integral to the study of psychology, particularly in the field of educational and early childhood psychology.

These principles are encapsulated in three theories or themes: Social Interaction Key concept 1 Social interaction plays a central role in cognitive development.

It is ingrained in every individual, even as a child, to seek meaning in everything. Curiosity sets in early on during childhood, and you probably noticed how, even from a very young age, a what are the central concepts of social development theories starts asking questions. He will be looking around, wide-eyed, wonder and interest in his observant eyes.

This dynamic relationship denotes a relationship of mutuality between the two. Just as society has an impact on the individual, the individual also has an impact on society. Children are unable to learn and develop if they are removed from society, or are forbidden to interact with it.

Take a look at the typical development of a child: On play dates, he learned how to play with other kids his age, and slowly built a bond with one or two kids that he ended up being the closest to. On the first day of school, he met his teacher, and several other teachers in the following years. The process of learning also required him to work closely with other people besides his teachers, such as older students and classmates. Through these social learning experiences, he was able to gradually develop and grow.

And that brings us to the next concept of the Social Interaction. Key concept 2 Social learning precedes development. Vygotsky claims that a child will not be able to develop unless he undergoes or experiences social learning first. Social level, or interpsychological. The functions first appear between individuals first. This is where the person will have to interact, connect and reach out to other people.

This is the level where social learning takes place.

Social Development Theory (Lev Vygotsky)

Individual level, or intrapsychological. This is the area within the child or the individual. Once he has passed the social level, where he acquired social learnings, the functions will appear a second time and, this time, more developed and thus, leading to cognitive development. To put it plainly, without learning, there is no way that that individual will be able to function and become fully developed.

However, that does not mean that people are born with absolutely zero abilities. Vygotsky is quick to point out that everyone is born with basic or elementary functions or abilities that will what are the central concepts of social development theories them started on the road to their intellectual development. The elementary mental functions include those that come by naturally with birth and growth, without influence by an external stimulus.

In other words, these capacities are not learned, involuntary, and often do not really require any thought on the part of the individual. Vygotsky even went so far as saying that most of these elementary mental functions are acquired by a child through genetics Examples of elementary or lower mental functions LMFs are: A child does not need to be taught that something is hot, cold, sweet, or bitter.

His senses are will automatically deliver those messages to his brain, so he can react accordingly. When an infant is hungry, he is hungry, and so he will show it by crying or acting restless. He does not need to be told that he is hungry since his body will manifest the fact. To be more specific, natural or unmediated memory. Young children are able to immediately commit things to memory in a natural manner.

Unlike elementary mental functions, they are stimulated.

Understanding Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory

They are taught, and they are learned in social settings or environments, and they often come with social meanings. The given examples include: As a child develops, so does his capacity for languages.

  • His thoughts and ideas on the subject were embodied in what is now known as the Social Development Theory;
  • He attempted to change the focus of paedology, claiming that "the development of the child is the direct and immediate object of our science";
  • The first few times, the father taught his son how to catch and throw the ball, holding his hand, teaching how to grip, pull back, and throw.

The need to communicate to people around him — whether to express his discontent about something or to inform his parents that he is hungry or he has to go potty — will spur the need to learn languages.

As he grows older and undergoes a multitude of other social processes, language learning will also advance, as well as his thought processes. This refers to what comes after the child has gone past the natural memory stage.

This time, his memory can be cultivated and controlled, and he now has access to memory aids and tools. He is now able to make the relevant associations, and he can pick the things that he deems must be memorized, using these tools. Examples of these so-called tools of intellectual adaptation, or tools that allow children to use their elementary mental functions more effectively, include mind mapsmemory mnemonics, note-taking, and other visual cues and aids.

You may have heard toddlers and small children being described as having short attention span. Social learnings will arm the child with the ability of focus and concentration, and the ability to figure out what to do with it.

He gets to decide which objects, actions or thoughts to focus on. Full cognitive development means that, eventually, he will be capable of selective or focused attention and shared or divided attention, and sustain it.

Through sensing, a child is able to recognize a sensory stimuli… but it ends there. His lack of perception skills will render him unable to interpret the meaning or significance behind it. Key concept 3 Language accelerates cognitive development. It is a given that language is very important in any social interaction, since it is the primary medium of communication in any social setting. First, let us take a look at the three stages of speech development, according to Vygotsky.

Stage 1 — Social or External Speech This covers the preverbal stage, usually under the age of three, when the child is still unable to transcribe his thoughts in complete thought messages.

His thoughts are pretty simple, and his emotions basic, and there is no intellectual or thinking exercise involved. Therefore, he makes use of his limited speech to express simple thoughts of hunger, pleasure, displeasure, satisfaction and dissatisfaction through crying, laughing, shouting, and gurgling.

This is usually demonstrated between the ages of 3 and 7, when the child starts to enunciate words more clearly and form more complete sentences, with more sense or thought. They practice this by talking out loud to themselves. It is actually normal behavior for them at this stage to do things, even the simple act of playing with a train set, with a running commentary of every little thing that they are doing.

Stage 3 — Inner Speech The final speech development stage takes place once the child becomes older and starts growing toward adulthood, and he is able to use it to direct both his thinking and the resulting behavior or action.

  • He claimed that every person needs to construct their own understanding of the world, but this construction does require the help of others;
  • The first few times, the father taught his son how to catch and throw the ball, holding his hand, teaching how to grip, pull back, and throw;
  • For example, language can affect how a person perceives something.

This does not require his thoughts to be voiced out loud, with all thinking processes done in his head. He can do mental calculations in his head, analyze a situation from all angles without saying a single word, and form an opinion without verbalizing his arguments. It is during this stage that the individual is now able to engage in all the other higher mental functions. Language involves speech — both its expression and comprehension.

The two-way nature of communication requires that the language must be expressed or delivered, and it must also be understood. When expressed differently, or even erroneously, the recipient will receive a different meaning. This essentially means that language can dictate the way people look at things, and how they process information. It is powerful enough to have an impact on the rate or speed of cognitive development, given how it is connected or related to the other cognitive functions.

For example, language can affect how a person perceives something. In the same manner that an individual is more motivated to memorize something that is in a language he understands, and ignore one that is expressed in a language that is completely foreign to him. Learn about the benefits of a bilangual brain in the following video.

According to Jean Piaget, the inherent curiosity of young children pushes them to be actively involved in their learning, and motivate them to discover and explore new things by themselves. They are the ones to actively initiate the discovery and development process. For Piaget, this is self-initiated and hands-on approach in discovery learning is the best way for children to learn.

Vygotsky agrees mostly with Piaget, except for the last part. They acquire knowledge and hone skills through these interactions, as well as the culture surrounding them, and these ultimately shape their cognition. As he grows older, he will be interacting with tutors and teachers, who are likely to provide verbal instructions and model or demonstrate behavior that will, consequently, guide him.

The More Knowledgeable Other MKO Meet the MKO, a person with a better understanding and considerably higher or superior level of ability, skill or knowledge about a particular subject, task or process, than the person who is attempting to learn also called the learner. It is common sense, really. Why would you seek to learn from someone who knows less than you? The MKO often comes in the person of a teacher, a superior at work, or a peer with more experience.

There are instances when he could be someone younger, but with more cultivated knowledge and skill. In this digital age, the MKO may even be a computer or any intelligent machine. In the eyes of a child, adults are the MKOs. Take, for example, a father and his little boy headed to their backyard to play catch.

He happens to know how to play baseball, and he plans to teach his boy the basics while he is still young. In this case, the MKO is the father, by virtue of his adult status and his knowledge and skills in the sport. Twenty years later, the son is now a professional baseball player, and his father has just retired. Before a major game, the son hands his father the latest, most advanced camcorder model, so he can film the game from his VIP seat.

He sits what are the central concepts of social development theories with his father and teaches him how to operate the camcorder.