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The experience of stereotype threat on math performances and its effects on women

The social psychological phenomenon of protect against reduced interest and performance in STEM stereotype threat complements this approach and demon- fields. This is clearly an important set of research questions strates the additional ways in which gender-related math with a very fruitful direction for future research. Considering the phenom- psychological phenomenon of stereotype threat. Specifically, considering the math attitudes.

STEM women and girls have positive math attitudes. Introduction Stereotype Threat In the target article, Gunderson et al. The landscape low stereotype threat condition. On the authors attributed these performance decrements to eval- difficult math problems, girls and boys performed uation pressures created by the possibility of confirming similarly when gender was not activated by the coloring negative stereotypes that African Americans lack intellec- task low stereotype threat condition ; however, girls tual ability.

In coloring task high stereotype threat condition. When participants and other countries that have similar math-gender stereotypes were told the test had not shown gender differences, e. However, to the extent that these stereotypes are However, when participants were told the test had not prevalent in a particular culture, these effects become shown gender differences, women performed significantly more difficult to find, demonstrating the role that stereotypes worse on the test compared to men.

For example, in a study looking across type threat on high stakes testing, Danaher and Crandall cultures and mental rotation abilities, researchers found 2008 analyzed data from an AP Calculus AB exam in that differences in male and female mental rotation were which high school students were either asked to report their correlated positively with gender equity and economic gender before they began the test or after they finished the development, suggesting that gender egalitarianism may test.

This analysis found that when female students were contribute to fewer stereotype-driven decrements in asked to report their gender before completing the AP Calculus performance Lippa et al. This finding translates to an additional 5. For example, Keller and Dauenheimer 2003 skills e. In children about 15 years old in a German secondary addition, stereotype threat effects have been shown to emerge school.

Here, a math test was administered to students in across a number of groups and the domains in which these the same way they were accustomed to taking tests.

For example, stereotype However, there was one change: Half of the students threat leads Latinos to underperform on academic tasks learned the test had shown gender differences in the Schmader and Johns 2003 ; older adults to underperform past high stereotype threat condition whereas the other on memory tests e.

Levy 1996 ; Whites to perform worse half learned the test had not shown these differences on measures of racism Frantz et al. As previously mentioned, stereotype stereotype threat conditiongirls performed significantly threat is a disruptive concern for a review see Schmader et worse than boys see also Good et al.

Stereotype threat does not in a college calculus class. Neuville and Croizet 2007 typically lead to decreased motivation in testing situations.

  1. Recognizing the problem is the first step to addressing it. Journal of Personality Targets as perceivers.
  2. Improving memory in old age through implicit self- Psychology, 40, 642—658.
  3. Because women underperformed only on math tests, but not on verbal tests, the authors conclude that this comes from stereotype threat, rather than tokenism being the only one in a group.
  4. The roots of stereotype threat need not be direct reminders of negative stereotypes.

These students well on a given task and disprove the negative stereotypes were randomly assigned to color a picture of a girl with Steele and Aronson 1995. Furthermore, research demon- a doll or a boy with a ball gender salient, high strates that participants put forth more effort in stereotype stereotype threat condition or to color a picture of a threatening situations Jamieson and Harkins 2007; 2009. Sex Roles However, more effort does not always translate into STEM intelligence, many have pointed to cultural or even better performance.

Higher motivation to do well in biological factors as driving gender disparities. However, situations where there are negative expectations can stereotype threat points to a very different driver of produce intrusive and distracting thoughts for a review gender disparities in performance and interest in STEM see Schmader et al. In one study, Cadinu et al. Environmental cues that make negative stereo- 2005 found that women experiencing stereotype threat types salient.

  1. Situations in which they are compared to Asians. Reducing the gender Jamieson, J.
  2. Specifically, a focus only grant number.
  3. For example, Miyake et al.

As a result, there are many aspects common to were more likely to report negative math-related thoughts academic environments that can produce stereotype threat, and not other thoughts compared to women in a no- from being in the numerical minority e.

Consistent with these someone who likely holds negative stereotypes Logel et findings, recent models articulating the mechanisms al.

As an example of the power of the situation, one underlying stereotype threat effects argue that in stereo- study recruited Asian women as participants because Asian type threatening situations, distracting concerns usurp the women have two identities that carry with them very executive resources needed to successfully complete different implications for math performance. That is, Asians cognitively demanding tasks, such as difficult math and are stereotyped as having strong abilities in math, yet women science problems Schmader et al.

Thus, 2007; Schmader and Johns 2003. In another study, Davies et al. Asian women who answered questions about 2002 showed women participants television commercials their gender performed worse than participants in the control that depicted women stereotypically e. Women in the stereotype threat condition—the most stereotype threat research examining gender in the women viewing the stereotypic commercials—were less context of math, White males are relatively unaffected by likely to report interest in quantitative majors and career stereotype threat manipulations; indeed, given that men are paths e.

However, if stereotype threat is a viewing counter-stereotypic commercials—did not report situational phenomenon that emerges regardless of a long a difference in interest regarding the quantitative and history of stigmatization, White men should experience verbal majors and career paths. Situations in which they are compared to Asians.

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Consistent with this The Situational Nature of Stereotype Threat prediction, when White men were reminded that Asians are stereotyped as stronger in math than Whites, White Gunderson et al.

A consideration of stereotype threat complements this approach because stereotype threat also emerges as a result of situational Implications for Intervention factors. One stereotype condition, and performed similarly to male participants threat intervention that has yielded successful outcomes in both conditions. Role models are argued to reduce is self-affirmation.

For example, reducing intergroup boundaries or creating a superordi- Martens et al.

For example, when as either diagnostic stereotype threat or non-diagnostic females were prompted to think about characteristics no threat control of math abilities. In addition, women that both men and women share prior to taking a were randomly assigned to a self-affirmation condition difficult math exam, their performance increased signif- write about a personally important value unrelated to icantly relative to the control condition in which math or a control condition write about a personally participants were not asked to do anything before the unimportant value unrelated to math.

Replicating tradi- math test Rosenthal and Crisp 2006. The authors tional stereotype threat effects, Martens and colleagues conclude that females came to see themselves as more found that women performed worse on the challenging similar to males as a result of the intervention and, thus, math test when it was described as diagnostic of their were not preoccupied with group stereotypes.

Similarly, abilities compared to when it was described as non- research has manipulated whether female students are diagnostic. However, stereotype threatened women who given the opportunity to think of themselves as elite affirmed a valued attribute different from math before private college students or college students who are good taking the test performed at similar levels compared to at math McGlone and Aronson 2006; Rydell et al.

In women in the no threat control condition. Thus, engaging these contexts, construing oneself in terms of the positively in a self-affirmation task protected these women from the stereotyped social identities—college students—buffered negative effects of stereotype threat.

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Research in field women against the negative effects of stereotype threat. For example, Miyake et al. For example, in one study, participants class at the beginning of the semester and again prior to the were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Although men outperformed women on control condition no threat that described a math task exam scores in the control condition, this gap was as a problem-solving exercise, 2 a stereotype threat significantly smaller in the affirmation condition.

Consistent with expectations, the presentation of role models e. That is, seeing intervention is successful is that knowledge about stereotype another individual who was similar to themselves i.

For example, if Jennifer is taking a math test, women from stereotype threat. The Multi-Threat her male classmates. Similarly, she might fear an inadequate Framework performance on this math test will confirm the stereotype, in her own mind, that women as a whole are less competent in Up to this point in the manuscript the experience of stereotype threat on math performances and its effects on women have treated STEM domains compared to men.

Thus, this particular form stereotype threat as a singular construct, and this is of stereotype threat is influenced by the math attitudes that are consistent with the bulk of the stereotype threat literature the focus of Gunderson et al.

For self-as- to date. However, recent conceptualizations of stereotype source stereotype threats to emerge, Jennifer must believe threat have argued that the treatment of stereotype threat as that there is some possibility that the stereotype could be true a broad umbrella concept obscures important distinctions Shapiro and Neuberg 2007; Shapiro 2011. A multi-threat approach gender-related math attitudes and the internalization of to stereotype threat articulates important distinctions among the gender-math stereotypes should create an additional different forms of stereotype threats—distinctions that are burden while taking diagnostic math tests.

That is, as relevant in the context of how gender-related math attitudes girls develop these negative math attitudes, including serve to generate risk for stereotype threat. For example, Jennifer might fear a poor of these math attitudes. Below we define and describe the performance on a math test will enable a teacher, peer, or distinctions between self-as-source and other-as-source parent to see her as stereotypic and thereby treat her in an stereotype threats and detail how these distinctions unfavorable manner.

Similarly, she might fear being a bad complement and extend Gunderson et al. Thus, for self-as-source stereotype threats, the distracting Gunderson et al. However, other- Sex Roles as-source stereotype threats point to a different, and equally woman who cares about the image of women in STEM harmful aspect of parent and teacher math attitudes: Further exploration of these possibilities is and interest in these domains. Thus, other-as-source important for future research.

The Multi-Threat Framework suggests that male nalization of the negative stereotypes and even if they teacher confidence, like female teacher confidence, will possess strong, positive math attitudes. Thus, some forms of confidence may performance in these classes. This should by this teacher Wout et al. Indeed, stereotype threat research factor for other-as-source stereotype threats. However, the Multi-Threat skill is ambiguous, as is the case for middle-achieving Framework also points to a place where female teacher individuals, these individuals are most at risk for the confidence may be threatening Shapiro 2011: Ingroup-as- negative effects of gender-related math attitudes held by source stereotype threats.

That is, when one considers the teachers and parents. The rationale is that stereotypes provide most likely candidate to serve as a source of stereotype information that helps observers understand ambiguous threats, the dominant group e.

However, this teacher is more likely to draw on stereotypes, treat ingroup members can serve as sources of stereotype threats students consistent with these stereotypes, and ultimately for different reasons. Recall Jennifer from earlier. A math confident performance will be interpreted, stereotype threat emerges Sex Roles when people care about this domain and their performance possibility that one will poorly represent the group.

What is in the domain Steele 1997. Thus, stereotype threat effects important to note about these particular stereotype threats is tend to emerge within individuals who score the highest on that they do not require the internalization of the stereotypes or quantitative SAT tests, are in the most advanced STEM even the endorsement of the stereotypes by others.

Instead, classes, and care the most about these abilities e. This others might hold the stereotypes. Specifically, a focus only grant number: BCS0956321 awarded to Jenessa R. As an example, Good and Aronson 1998 found that women enrolled in an advanced calculus class believed there were no gender differences in calculus References abilities, yet they still reported that other people think men are significantly better at calculus than women. Necessary and related math attitudes and the implications of knowing that sufficient factors in stereotype threat.

Journal of Experimental others have gender-related math attitudes. Social Psychology, 35, 29—46. Math performance in stressful situations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 339—343. Stereotype threat and working memory: Mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover.