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The background of the mongol uls landlocked nation in central asia

The empire was the most progressive yet seen, expanding trade and cultural communication, granting universal religious freedom, abolishing feudal systems, and giving rise to a blossoming of civilization. Some scholars even credit the Mongol Empire for spurring the Renaissance in western Europe.

Most of these people were nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose the background of the mongol uls landlocked nation in central asia prominence.

The first of these, the Xiongnuwere brought together to form a confederation by Modu Shanyu in 209 B. They defeated the Donghu, who had previously dominated in eastern Mongolia. The Xiongnu became the greatest enemy of China for the following three centuries. The Great Wall of China was built partly as defense against the Xiongnu.

Marshal Meng Tian of the Qin Empire dispersed more than 300,000 soldiers along the Great Wall to prevent an expected invasion from the North. It is believed that after their decisive defeat by the Chinese in 428-431, some of the Xiongnu migrated West to become the Huns. After the Xiongnu migrated west, Rouran, a close relative of the Mongolscame to power before being defeated by the Gokturkswho then dominated Mongolia for centuries.

Eurasia, circa 1200 C. During the seventh and eighth centuries, Mongolia was controlled by Gokturks, who were succeeded by the ancestors of today's Uigur and then by the Khitan and Jurchen. By the tenth century, the country was populated predominantly by Mongols believed to be a branch of the Xianbei.

During this period, the country was divided into numerous tribes linked through transient alliances. In the late twelfth century, a chieftain named Temujin united the Mongol tribes with the Naiman and Jurchen after a long struggle, and took the name of Genghis Khan. Starting in 1206, Genghis Khan and his successors consolidated and expanded the Mongol Empire into the largest contiguous land empire in world history.

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  • The petroleum products and electricity used to power the infrastructure are in large part 80 percent imported from Russia, which makes Mongolia vulnerable to supply shortages;
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  • Livestock grazing in a pasture in northeast-central Mongolia.

After Genghis Khan's death, the empire was divided into four kingdoms, or "Khanates. After more than a century of power, the Yuan Dynasty was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, and the Mongol court fled north. The Ming armies pursued and defeated them in Mongolia, but did not conquer Mongolia. The Mongol Empire at its greatest extent.

During the next few centuries, Mongolia was split between the Oirad in the west and the Khalkha in the east. Altan Khan united the Mongols briefly in 1571. After failing to defeat the Chinese, he made peace with the Ming Dynasty and instead attacked Tibeteventually becoming a convert to Tibetan Buddhism. During the seventeenth century, the Manchus rose to prominence in the east, and they conquered Inner Mongolia in 1636 and Outer Mongolia in 1691. For the next 200 years Mongolia was ruled by the Manchus, whose rulers became the Qing Dynasty.

During this time, the Manchus maintained their control over Mongolia with a series of alliances and intermarriages, as well as military and economic control. Several emperors of the Qing Dynasty were born to Mongol mothers. With the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Mongolia declared independence in 1911.

The new country's territory was approximately that of the former Outer Mongolia. After the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Chinese troops led by Xu Shuzheng attacked and occupied the capital in 1919. Chinese rule did not last: Ungern's cossacks triumphed, and he, in effect, briefly ruled Mongolia under the blessing of religious leader Bogd Khaan.

The mountains

But Ungern's triumph too was short-lived; he was chased out by the Red Army when it "liberated" Mongolia from feudalism and insured its political alignment with the Russian communists.

Alignment with Soviet Union Mongolia was the first country in Asia to embrace communist rule and the first to disengage from it. In 1928, under the administration of Horloogiyn Choybalsan, forced, but productive, collectivization was instituted, and in 1937, Buddhist monasteries were destroyed, with more than 10,000 Buddhist monks killed in the process.

The threat of Mongolian forces seizing parts of Inner Mongolia induced the Republic of China to recognize Outer Mongolia's independence, provided that a referendum was held. The referendum took place on October 20, 1945, with the electorate voting for independence. The Chinese Kuomintang Government, which had long been considering Mongolia as a part of China, had to recognize the independence of the Mongolian People's Republic and signed the protocol in the establishment of diplomatic relations on February 13, 1946.

Only three years later, in 1949, the People's Revolution in China led to the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The two countries concluded the Treaty in 1962 and pledged to respect each others independence and coexist peacefully.

Mongolia remained a Soviet satellite for nearly 70 years. In that time, the Soviets built much of Mongolia's infrastructure and industrial base and stationed military troops on the Chinese border.

The collapse of communism in Eastern Europecombined with these two policies, were enough to lead to a peaceful democratic revolution in Mongolia in 1990. This, in turn, allowed Mongolia to begin engaging in economic and diplomatic relations with the Western world.

The nation finished its transition from a communist state to a multi-party, free-market democracy with the ratification of a new constitution in 1992. The new freedoms that came with sudden democratization brought blessings and curses.

Religious and civic freedoms brought optimism and rediscovery of the rich cultural and historical Mongolian traditions, but losing Russia's economic subsidies as its prime trading partner brought tremendous challenges to the everyday economic survival of Mongolians at large. Mongolian-style democracy faced many of the same challenges that other former Soviet satellite nations have faced.

Many of Mongolia's democratic reforms were initiated with U. The United States had recognized Mongolia in 1987 and since has sought to expand cultural and economic ties.

Both Russia and China now view Mongolia with some wariness as a pro-U. The main opposition party was the Democratic Party or DP, which controlled a governing coalition from 1996 to 2000. By January 2006, the fragile coalition broke up with the MPRP once again leading the government; however, the DP refused to take part in a new coalition.

The next parliamentary elections are scheduled for June 2008. Mongolia's constitution provides three requirements for taking office as President: The individual must be a native-born Mongolian, who is at least 45 years of age, and who has resided in Mongolia for five years prior to taking office.

Nambaryn Enkhbayar became president of Mongolia in June 2005. President Nambaryn Enkhbayar Mongolia uses a unicameral parliamentary system in which the president has a symbolic role and the government chosen by the legislature exercises executive power. The legislative arm, the State Great Hural, has one chamber with 76 seats and is chaired by the speaker of the house. The the background of the mongol uls landlocked nation in central asia minister is elected by the State Great Hural.

The cabinet is then nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president, and confirmed by the State Great Hural. However, there is also a Constitutional Court, as the Supreme Court does not have jurisdiction to interpret the Constitution. Mongolia is divided into 21 Aymguud provinces sing. The Aymguud are further sub-divided into 315 Somon "districts" sing.

Geography and climate At 604,209 square miles 1,565,000 square kilometersMongolia is the world's 19th-largest country after Iran. It is significantly larger than the next-largest country, Peruand nearly as large as the U. The Mongolian heartland consists of relatively flat steppes.

The southern portion of the country is taken up by the Gobi Desertwhile the northern and western portions are mountainous. The country is also subject to occasional harsh climatic conditions known as zud or dzud. Ulaanbaatar has the coldest average temperature of any national capital in the world.

Mongolia has a cold and arid climate of extremes with long, cold winters and short summers, during which most of its annual precipitation falls. Precipitation is highest in the north average of 20 to 35 centimeters per year and lowest in the south, which receives 10 to 20 centimeters annually. The extreme south is the Gobi, some regions of which receive no precipitation at all in most years.

  • Average life expectancy is 63 years, and the infant mortality rate is at 6 percent;
  • With the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Mongolia declared independence in 1911;
  • Mongolia's population growth rate is estimated at 1;
  • The Khalkha make up 90 percent of the ethnic Mongol population;
  • President Nambaryn Enkhbayar Mongolia uses a unicameral parliamentary system in which the president has a symbolic role and the government chosen by the legislature exercises executive power;
  • After more than a century of power, the Yuan Dynasty was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, and the Mongol court fled north.

Mongolia has rich mineral resources, and coppercoalmolybdenumtintungstenand gold account for a large part of industrial production. In the 1990s, the disappearance of Soviet aid due to the fall of the Soviet Union accounted for the closing of many industrial facilities in Mongolia.

However, growth picked up in 2004 and 2005 with increases of 10. The majority of the population outside urban areas participate in subsistence herding; livestock typically consists of cows, sheep, goats, horses, and Bactrian camels.

Agricultural crops include wheat, barley, vegetables, and other forage crops. Despite growth, the proportion of the population below the poverty line was estimated to be 36. Industrial sector Industry currently accounts for 21. These industries include construction and construction materials, miningoilfood and beverages, processing of animal products, and cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing.

The industrial production growth rate was estimated to be 4. Tourism In the late 1980s, tourism played a minor role in Mongolia's foreign economic relations. About 10,000 foreign visitors came from communist, North American, and West European countries annually.

The background of the mongol uls landlocked nation in central asia

A change in country's attitude toward tourism took place when the Tourism Law of Mongolia was enacted on May 5, 2000. The new law resulted in plans to raise services to the world standard and extensive measures to increase tourist arrivals in Mongolia and to create attractive tour options.

There are currently 219 tourism operators in the country. Untouched nature, magnificent wildlife, ancient history, and the unique nomadic traditions and culture of the Mongols present great potential for the development of the Mongolian tourism industry, with special potential in eco-tourism, hunting, and fishing.

The number of tourists, now about 350,000 a year, is growing more than 10 percent annually. Hilton Hotels was scheduled to open a 240-room hotel in May 2008. Other five-star hotels are beginning to appear in Ulaanbaatar.

  • Mongolia has named English the second official language of Mongolia, replacing Russian;
  • Other five-star hotels are beginning to appear in Ulaanbaatar.

Infrastructure Mongolia has a relatively small and undeveloped infrastructure in terms of roads and electricity. Due to the nomadic nature of some parts of the population, the vast majority of roadways are unpaved. However, investment from South Korea and other countries have helped add more paved roads and electricity access to remote locations in Mongolia.

There are 48 airports throughout the country, including one international airport in Ulaanbaatar, with service to China, Korea, Japan, GermanyRussia, and other countries. The petroleum products and electricity used to power the infrastructure are in large part 80 percent imported from Russia, which makes Mongolia vulnerable to supply shortages. Though the majority of Mongolian citizens are of Mongol descent, there are small populations of Kazakh, Tuvan, and Tungus peoples.

Mongolia's population growth rate is estimated at 1. About two-thirds of the total population is under age 30, 36 percent of whom are under 14.