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Diversity relates to and promotes democratic principles in the workplace

Received 2015 Sep 19; Accepted 2016 Mar 28. Abstract In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures?

Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect.

In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity.

In our last model—an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information—we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future.

We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences. Introduction Models of culture and social influence In light of inherent tensions in international integration [ 1 ] and a contemporary trend towards cultural policy [ 23 ], factors that impact cultural globalization and the preservation of diversity have been a recent focus in computational modeling. The question how diversity, i.

  • I want every man to have a chance;
  • It is government of a community in which all citizens, rather than favored individuals or groups, have the right and opportunity to participate.

Culture is here construed as the information which is transmitted between individuals in a social manner such as music, customs, and language. The process of transmission is also known as social influence [ 9 ]. Formal mathematical models of social influence illustrated that, when everyone in a network is connected, a global monoculture is inevitable—all cultures converge to a global consensus and become homogenous [ 41011 ].

Cultural simulations, among them artificial societies [ 512 ], have since then been adopted to facilitate the study of patterns of cultural transmission. They have enhanced our understanding of how diversity and global consensus emerge in societies, and how societies can fluctuate between one and the other, exploring these dynamics by introducing various factors to social influence to find ways by which diversity can be preserved. One example of a social process that has yielded valuable insights is homophily, the principle of "like attracts like": Schelling used this diversity relates to and promotes democratic principles in the workplace to show that a small "dislike" for a dissimilar neighbor could lead to complete segregation in an agent-based model [ 1516 ].

Following this, Axelrod's seminal paper [ 5 ] introduced an agent-based model that integrated both, the proposed network structure of previous models [ 4 ] and homophily [ 13 ], but instead of looking at segregation by movement like Schelling [ 16 ], he studied segregation by attitude change, in particular the question: He found that cultural diversity emerges and persists under homophily, because groups of agents with similar characteristics grow more similar inside each group, until the groups don't share any common characteristics.

Once complete dissimilarity between two groups is reached, they no longer interact. Initial parameters, such as population size, neighbourhood interaction size, and number of cultural features and traits, impacted the emergence of cultural diversity, for example, a smaller population size was conducive to diversity, while an increase in neighbourhood size increased cultural homogeneity [ 517 ]. In recent research, mass media has been shown to increase cultural diversity when the mass media messages are strong enough, whereas weaker messages were more likely to lead to global homogeneity [ 1819 ].

A change in geography, such as modelling mountains that minimize contact between groups of agents, increased levels of diversity as well [ 20 ].

  • Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles;
  • These rights may be limited to life, liberty, and property, or they may be extended to include such economic and social rights as employment, health care and education;
  • We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences;
  • Required Tools for Managing Diversity Effective managers are aware that certain skills are necessary for creating a successful, diverse workforce;
  • The executive may exercise some power over the legislature, and vice versa;
  • Students should be able to explain that the world is divided into different nations which interact with one another.

The types of interaction between agents have been also explored: Klemm et al [ 2324 ] introduced various rates of noise into Axelrod's model and found that even at the smallest rate of perturbations, the model quickly destabilized and converged into a monoculture without any diversity, while at a larger rate of perturbation, it devolved into anomie, the complete cultural isolation of each individual from their neighbors [ 2526 ].

It will therefore serve, along with Axelrod's model, as a comparison point in our results. First analyses of institutional influence supposed that a diminishing impact of social institutions on values and behavior would increase individualistic tendencies and could, in extreme cases, lead to anomie [ 26 ]. Very little research has looked at the diversity relates to and promotes democratic principles in the workplace of institutions on culture and its underlying processes of social influence.

To our knowledge, only three major projects have used agent-based models in this context: The addition of institutions to an agent-based model of cultural patterns, as we propose, can add insight into processes of cultural diversity emergence and resilience by for example analyzing the impact of varying levels of institutional influence and institutional loyalty on culture.

In agent based models, the idea of "central authorities" has been mostly excluded from the methodology so far. This might be due to the assumption that they can only play the part of central coordinating agents [ 512 ].

To the contrary, we would like to establish that central authorities and institutions do not denote the same concept. An example of a previous implementation of central authority is the inclusion of geography, such as a mountain range [ 20 ]. However, authorities are not necessarily absolute. With our present work, we aim at a use of institutions which exert influence on individuals and govern people's behavior and are in turn influenced by individuals, especially in their creation [ 36 ].

They can be more formal, such as governments, marriage, organized religion, or informal agreements, such as vegetarianism or spiritual beliefs.

Diversity (politics)

In general, space in which shared information is stored does not need to be tangible, but in artificial representations, there is a need to conceptualize a second level of information that lies beyond first level individual interaction patterns. At the same time, belief spaces have an impact on how the agents evolve alongside each other; they impact who interacts with who and who is influenced in what way.

In agent-based models, this particular kind of belief space has been termed a "cultural repository" [ 33 ]. In order to illustrate the relationship of these two levels of information storage, let us assume, for example, that Romeo interacts with Juliet, discussing the value of certain types of music. In our model, both Romeo and Juliet still interact on an individual level, but they also have a belief space that represents the two different institutions that they belong to, for example their respective familial units, House Montague and House Capulet Fig 1.

When Romeo interacts with Juliet, he is not only aware of their interpersonal similarity and their own traits, he is also pressured by how representative his institution i.

  • An understanding of the benefits of diversity to the individual and society as well as some of its costs may reduce irrational conflicts and unfair discrimination and provide a basis for the equitable handling of conflicts that do arise;
  • Respecting individual differences will benefit the workplace by creating a competitive edge and increasing work productivity;
  • Content summary and rationale The well-being of American democracy depends upon the informed and effective participation of citizens concerned with the preservation of individual rights and the promotion of the common good;
  • To achieve this standard, students should be able to explain the difference between a citizen and a non-citizen alien explain that people become citizens by birth or naturalization C;
  • Students should be able to explain that Americans believe a primary purpose of government is to protect the rights of the individual to life, liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness another important purpose of government is to promote the common good individuals have the right to differ about politics, religion, or any other matter individuals have the right to express their views without fear of being punished by their peers or their government the vote of one individual should count as much as another's Importance of their school, community, state, and nation;
  • This separation is typically among legislative, executive, and judicial functions.

The level of institutional influence that Romeo perceives can prevent him from liking salsa music.